Identifying Individual-Cancer-Related Genes by Re-balancing the Training Samples

Vol. 15, No. 4

The identification of individual-cancer-related genes typically is an imbalanced classification issue. The number of known cancer-related genes is far less than the number of all unknown genes, which makes it very hard to detect novel predictions from such imbalanced training samples. A regular machine learning method can either only detect genes related to all cancers or add clinical knowledge to circumvent this issue. In this study, we introduce a training sample rebalancing strategy to overcome this issue by using a two-step logistic regression and a random resampling method. The two-step logistic regression is to select a set of genes that related to all cancers. While the random resampling method is performed to further classify those genes associated with individual cancers. The issue of imbalanced classification is circumvented by randomly adding positive instances related to other cancers at first, and then excluding those unrelated predictions according to the overall performance at the following step. Numerical experiments show that the proposed resampling method is able to identify cancer-related genes even when the number of known genes related to it is small. The final predictions for all individual cancers achieve AUC values around 0.93 by using the leave-one-out cross validation method, which is very promising, compared with existing methods.

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